methods of data presentation

It is a smooth, bell shaped perfectly symmetrical curve based on an infinitely large number of observations. This comes up, usually, in Chapter Four of the research project. Tabulation • Tabulation is the first step before the data is used for analysis or interpretation. They are merely a way of presenting a set of numbers by the length of a bar. on either side of the mean will include approximately 68% of the values in the distribution. It is the average of the deviations from the arithmetic mean. (c = number of columns, r = number of rows). 5.Use callouts where required Using callouts is quite effective to draw the attention of your audience to multiple areas of your chart. S.D. �0"��Z� �j�UoB 1 Audience and context 3. Methods; Data presentation; Analysis; Conclusions; Evaluation; Data presentation. Also, learn more about advantages and disadvantages of quantitative data as well as the … Any extraneous variable whose potential influence on the dependent variable has not been controlled for. High correlation between results of two or more raters of the same test. A very reliable test may have low validity precisely because its results do not change i.e., it does not measure true changes. .���&1��`�`���ݵ���G�ES��2�����b��[�����%���c��aa��E����p�$��փ5�o8��V(HB�m ֶ�ѰQR9����������Bȼ@�#�(I]@�I�� Tabulation can be in form of Simple Tables or Frequency distribution table (i.e., data is split into convenient groups). Data Presentation. By this method, each unit is the sampling frame would have the same chance of being selected, but the number of possible samples is greatly reduced. It has advantage that it can be used when more than two groups are to be compared. The class intervals are given along the horizontal axis and the frequencies along the vertical axis. G"�e+:{�KU������}j�ه��NRU�#�U�#�ԊU$�ZͲF4�X��x��K���q�a � �3n��Ur�D�Q���Ӣ�,CtM�8�����m|(��,0-C���a�2>�2>�d�3��it�q|N�����'�i�S��8D&�8D' QG� Dashboards For a breakdown of these objectives, check out our course on Excel Dashboards & Data Visualizationto help you become a world-class financial analyst. Authors: Josée Dupuis, PhD, Professor of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health. The distance of a value (x) from the mean (X̅) of the curve in units of S.D. Pictogram is a popular method of presenting data to the “man in the street” and to those who cannot understand orthodox charts. Content Guidelines 2. High correlation between two forms of the same test. Methods of Data Collection. It consists of a series of blocks. Introduction "Modern data graphics can do much more than simply substitute for small statistical tables. The area of each segment depends upon the angle. Tabular presentation Visual Presentation Graphical Presentation Diagrammatical Presentation 4. Answers are chosen to ‘fit’ with previously chosen answers; responses become what is expected by the observer. Before that, we will introduce some basic concepts of types of data and methods of data collection. Tabular Method Provides a more precise, systematic and orderly presentation of data in rows or columns. Measures relation­ship between two sets of variables but assumes that one is dependent and the other is independent. stream Focus on important points 5. of the mean is also called the standard error and the distribution of the sample means about the true mean of the universe. It is a pictorial diagram of frequency distribution. The area between one S.D. �&�.F����@r6$��sAҰ�+���9#�B�YH�P����+�sA���HB��sEr^ 9�]�mA҄�V$�$��ռ] ��6�] ��Hn���6#���ۊ�v��֐Lj$]͊�vD�A�bwT�ɲ��ñ]Ƕ�n1v!Y�n1�:��p��p�ñ�ñ����a��]�y��]�E8��p,��y��\�5��� f�(d ����3��\ ��H.��yoHv���6!kH��2�j^D�()�����52t53�ia�58������aq�vw��a���\͋�%EM�+��"jThjְp���r�H.�`6��]��1aRs��!/[�]�ݓ�s���`�t�h���d�у�Taa�Hv��\C��c��E�V��Zj�7/�?�����u�jV���c5��b �;���{�"�CI�X�Z�fEr��)қ�A���u!=�+]x��*$MM��R��ߥ This is done by assigning a number to each of the units (the individuals) in the sampling frame. is 1. To diagnose psychiatric disorder accurately. It gives a mental picture of the central value. No general consensus exists amongst qualitative researchers concerning the process of data analysis. Learn more about the common types of quantitative data, quantitative data collection methods and quantitative data analysis methods with steps. The factors which influence the sampling error are size and variability of individual readings. ^��Y����� ��B�(�;�o\H 1Ԉ5L�Փ�]��0쓳����t��������A��m�{`|�����}�/׹�6��⶟�$���r�ϻ/�m���p۟��&��|�L��7n��)� ��:&�l�bz����!�:l/��|9�&��bX�af�2o`��&�a��O{x�l�{��ys(^�߭���C� Random numbers are a haphazard collection of certain numbers, arranged in a running manner to eliminate personal selection of unconscious bias in taking out the sample. The S.D. Small pictures or symbols are used to present the data. �������M���>L�i����ݴ�o�6���ae�VW�L�����#�����4�O�l��#C��|�dcw���&��n�i�[��<72x��#y���k7�w����ھ��Q���#jf�I��}A�0�v(���f���"����Cي��n�T�;��>6���!8�0[%�y��Pp�����e�ah�@P�� -ӑ���+Gd��l�x٣���|7� {��B����� They are useful methods in presenting simple statistical data. The total area of the curve is 1, its mean is 0 and its S.D. %PDF-1.3 b���Hc�n5A���&E�~�i!MF"�D4هh� �d��d2�b�v�7M!���h6����h2��dMsI4�>h�,��\b.�f�x\|� �D+�D:F��F%�ۤ�n�A�HĈf�䛑���LP C��ЮdcW J��6�Jk����-���"�Ҧ���*� �¿���+�����6�Jk3��?6��.6�l�R-ʔgQ��H���bk��ŸR�E����t�.޵��P��J3��WK���RQ þ�g�[ja3b�2)��2)��;�&]l�E�)���J���@3�&]�E�6�NT��6ێo��t��EҤͪ�4��#v����/��%j=�mʕ�F$J���(y�/eITæ}8�HT�pʏ�pJ���M~t�e, ��� �E�`1r" �H���h�)�)�. The tools provided to automatically generate the images below are all very quick and easy to use. Qualitative data, or data that cannot translate into quantifiable measurements, requires thematic analysis to report patterns appearing in a theme or category. These limits on either side of the mean are called “confidence limits”. In this, instead of means, proportions and its universe are used in a sample. The area between three S .D. �Q� The antecedent condition manipulated by the experimenter (e.g., drug levels). In simple terms, it is defined as “Root-Means- Square-Deviation”. Y��-����&QR�\k[�b�P�d �V�E�����"XC�S+$M����\���Y�7�k��U����;et�����a��� ��֣� Subject chooses the acceptable answer rather than the true one. I know – what a way to start an article about data. The normal distribu­tion or normal curve is an important concept in statistical theory. For smaller samples, the above formula tends to underestimate the standard deviation, and therefore needs correction i.e., use n-1 instead of n. The meaning of standard deviation can only be appreciated fully when we study it with reference to “normal curve”. Methods of Data Collection Survey Methods Self-Administered Questionnaires Interviews Methods of Observation Non-Participant Observation Participant Observation – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 6f5845-NWQ0N kKv�5̙=�б�l���l�8��!�ݮ"�m��$BPm • A table can be simple or complex, depending upon the number or measurement of single set or multiple sets of items. The best methods to use for presenting data vary depending on the type of information, volume and complexity of data and the audience. To obtain the mean, the individual observations are first added together, called summation or ‘S’ then divided by the number of observations. Data is initially collected from a given source, whether they are experiments, surveys, or observation, and is presented in one of four methods: Textual Method The reader acquires information through reading the gathered data. Data, Presentation Methods, Presentation Methods of Statistical Data, Statistics. This is done by picking every 5th or 10th units at regular intervals. It is denoted by Greek letter 6. … Instead of comparing the length of a bar, the areas of segments of a circle are compared. A slightly different approach to classification of cartographic presentation methods was introduced by A.H. Robinson (Robinson et al. The most common way of presentation of data is in the form of statements. It could be argued that this is another way in which qualitative research methods significantly differ from quantitative approaches. In this article we will discuss about the presentation methods of statistical data. See the following slide with map showing data: The picture of the world map helps the audience get a visual context for the 4 pie charts. Raw Data Data sheets are where the data are originally recorded. 1995), who proposed a division into methods in accordance with applied spatial dimension (point, linear, areal, 3D). Nominal scale A nominal scale is where: the data can be classified into a non-numerical or named categories, and the order in which these categories can be written or asked is arbitrary. Primary data are those which are collected for the first time and are original in character 2. Common approach: Data legends and labels are often absent. jkpgs. This forces the audience to … Gerald W. Ouma ; 25 March 2010; 2 Data Presentation . Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. Pictogram is a popular method of presenting data to the “man in the street” and to those who cannot understand orthodox charts. Write. Let us see some ways in which we represent data in … �+ԫc��C�� To assess severity and change in severity. If we take a random sample from the population, and similar samples over and over again, we will find that every sample will have a different mean. View Methods of Data Presentation.pdf from MATH GMATH at Saint Louis University, Baguio City Main Campus - Bonifacio St., Baguio City. Assume a normal distribution (e.g., the student’s test). This technique provides the greatest number of possible samples. ��ٓ�mw���I�6�N#���ML�+Ȟ of 1.0 implies exact similarity and C.C. Persuasiveness 8. How to do Data Presentation, analysis and Discussion. $=����]�!�$z\ �a]t��AJ�MzLW��Hzl,&��F��@�����'�� The sample is deliberately drawn in a systematic way so that each portion of the sample represents a corresponding strata of the universe. Observation Method 2. Visual communication 2. If we take repeated samples from the same population or universe, the results obtained from one sample will differ to some extent from the results of another sample. ii. It is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest figures in a given sample. Data Presentation Methods of Data Presentation Textual Data is Presentation of Qualitative Data. Graphs; Descriptive statistics; Presenting qualitative data; Using GIS; 1. This is called to set confidence limits and find out level of significance. Errors may occur due to inadequate calibrated instruments, due to observer variation as well as due to incomplete coverage achieved in examining the subjects selected and conceptual errors. Storytelling 7. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The mean, median and mode all coincide. 4 0 obj This method is particularly useful where one is interested in analysing the data by a certain characteristic of the population e.g., Hindus, age-groups etc. presentation methods, and learning to graph data one has collected oneself from one s own experiments is considerably more engaging and motivating than learning to graph using data that is given by the teacher. METHODS OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS . A source of error (e.g., age and sex imbalance). Note that the figure may be drawn horizontally or … Introduction. It is the most frequently used measure of deviation. �_3��?p���4A�[���I�j��`X�\Ͳ�1���T�,#/ �") �j�;��##m�YF: �e��\@�*�o�‘jݱD Or, when legends and labels are present, they are often presented far away from associated data points. �l�Ԩh�������揞�5+DΪ�ed The bar chart can be simple, multiple or component type. First, one has to set up a hypothesis, called the Null Hypothesis that there was no difference between the findings of the two groups. Flashcards. Its main purpose is to display quantities in the form of bars. Rather, there are a variety of approaches to analysis and interpretation. The Importance of Data Presentation . Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The bar chart is one of the most common methods of presenting data in a visual form. This type of variation from one sample to another is called sampling error. By knowing χ2 and d.f. It is the most frequent item in series of observations. There are essentially two types: 1. Researchers alter the situation by their presence. Subject tends to choose the middle response and shun extremes. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION - The data gathered are presented in paragraph form. Bar chart. These assess the meaning of the data e.g.,: Measures the statistical relationship between two sets of variables, without assuming that either is dependent or independent. It is advisable to use custom animation to show the callouts one at a time. This is where the researcher presents the data collected from respondents though not in the raw form. is called “relative deviate or standard normal variate” and is usually denoted by Z. Learn. Design principles 6. Data visualization is an interdisciplinary field that deals with the graphic representation of data.It is a particularly efficient way of communicating when the data is numerous as for example a Time Series.From an academic point of view, this representation can be considered as a mapping between the original data (usually numerical) and graphic elements (for example, lines or points in a chart). Story Time. Here, we look ��tQ��(_���eD�"���] {����Xŝ�����,���G��nWq�?�V��'��Z�ʟ��ŭ����U���M�$U�ʟ�J��]��7�ǽ}���կ�%�s J|���ф�C���qK��y��xH�1n�`긓Ժ��m��G2}�~��f7��jP'����g��j���U��Y6��}{��nڳ�v�>�+ܟ�R���Ѷ`����`�n��La�X����҇Tee�-��U�?��Y���A-+�vS��;��7n˫m :xO�-����|��Xՠ�ݍ�~m�#X��v>8�j7�7�V6���a����pǃ'8. The larger the standard deviation the greater the dispersion of values about the mean. Small pictures or symbols are used to present the data. If we have grouped data, the range is taken as the difference between the midpoints of the extreme categories. 3. This will generate dimen­sions (e.g., psychotic neurotic). The extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure: Whether the test selects a representative sample of the total tests for that variable. Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have been subjected to some statistical analysis Collection of Primary Data Primary data may be collected thru: 1. Kenny Thompson , 2 years ago 6 min read 2241 . ay�h[��$EP+V��j�j[�j[��DC������W�JD�u�����#�d�|��F2B�x2� 6G&"�u METHODS OF DATA PRESENTATION Textual Method Tabular Method Graphical Method METHODS OF PRESENTING iii. First, it is a visual way to look at the data and see what happened and make interpretations. ), mail questionnaires (cheap and easy but low response rate, hence sample bias), self-rating questionnaires be answered inaccurately) and observer rated interview (structured, semi structured or informal, allow great flexibility and accuracy but are expensive and need training). Method by which the people organize, summarize and communicate information using a variety of tools such as tables, graphs and diagrams 3. 3. In this article, the techniques of data and information presentation in textual, tabular, and graphical forms are introduced. Charts, graphs, and images 4. Tabulation is the first step before data is used for analysis. Match. Variables are any constructs or events which research studies. Factors are an expression of the relationship between attributes, not between individuals. Similarly, a poorly created PowerPoint presentation can distract you from the information it's aiding to deliver. With large amounts of data graphical presentation methods are often clearer to understand. Subject always tends either to agree or disagree with questions. Original data are called raw data. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Methods Of Data Collection PPT. Means is denoted by the sign X̅ (called “X bar”). The purpose of putting results of research into graphs, charts and tables is two-fold. Geography Data Presentation Techniques and Methods. The format for the presentation of data will depend on the target audience and the information that needs to be relayed. The area between two S.D. In the end, data should be presented in such a way that interpretation and analysis is made easy. ���d�X%T���=_1�����l�\�=����#��_����y!>��{��y4޳A޹�l�]A�\P�x�+(_ Categories on x-axis. The term “average” implies a value in the distribution, around which the other values are distributed. Sometimes in a data presentation, numbers can be cold and intimidating. Data visualisation can have a negative impact on the viewer's ability to interpret the information, but that's due to a poorly created visualisation. High correlation between two halves of the same test. Presentation of data with simple animation makes data powerful. Graphs Your findings can be presented with a range of graphical and mapping techniques. STUDY. Non parametric statistics use data which are not normally distributed (e.g., chi square test). Bar height represents frequency. Test. It's important to always keep the message in mind when visualising the data. High correlation between scores on the same test given on two occasions. on either side of the mean will cover most of the values i.e., approximately 95% of the values. TOS4. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (50) Advantages of annotated field sketches (3) shows key features, conveys a sense of landscape in context, good memory tool when accompanied with detailed annotations. x�}]�Gr����?�hz�g��]�,:ĕe",;,=� ����ŕ�O�9Y�Y=s�B�Ɉ;�ʪ��SYY��]��:�����e�]և��r���tڟֻ��ӫ���_���yz����~����v�k����>�.�3��������f�O�_N��k����鯞?�כi��������ۏO������i�LO^=��͗��K����t:4ҋ��vz����<=�X��O����-/ The standard normal deviate or Z is given by formula: When a large proportion of individuals or items or units have been studied we take a sample. will include 99.7% of the values. Nominal data. (d) Standard Error of Difference Between Proportions: Instead of means, sometimes one has to test the significance of difference between two proportions or ratios to find out if the difference between the two proportions or ratios have occurred by chance. %��������� ?ꛢ����4�[]��e��a-�2��˕�������f\P�=ּ���n%���S�����(n�ϛ2B�Ɔ�r�HV߆�V��idތC����`���b5oF���T2������� Graphical methods for presenting data 2.1 Introduction We have lookedatways of collectingdataand thencollatingthem intotables. The shape of the curve will depend upon the mean and standard deviation which in turn will depend upon the number and nature of observation. (c) Standard Error of Difference Between Two Means: To compare the results between two groups (e.g., control group and experimental group), the difference between the means of two group is compared to indicate that the samples represent two different universe. 3. Data may be presented in (3 Methods): - Textual - Tabular or - Graphical.

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